Doctoral students comprise a unique population with special needs and concerns. While considerable research has investigated graduate student satisfaction and retention (Brandes, 2006; Golde, 1998; Tinto, 1987), much of the research views graduate students as extensions of undergraduates in terms of their motivations and needs.
Billups, F. D. (2010) Applying Tinto’s model to assess doctoral student satisfaction, The NERA Researcher, 48(2), 22-23.
Billups, Felice D., "Academic Integration of Doctoral Students: Applying Tinto’s Model" (2010). Higher Education. 7.