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Diagnosis of lung cancer (LC) has been fraught with difficulty and by the time of definitive diagnosis, most patients are in later stages of the disease. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that lifestyle behaviors play an etiological role in LC risk; however data in the literature on this topic often appears inconclusive or require further study. Understanding of the mechanisms operating between lifestyle patterns and their impact on LC is important for the disease’s prevention and treatment. The purpose of this study was to review the current evidence on the role of diet, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sex hormone use in LC development based on meta-analyses, systematic reviews and previously published epidemiologic studies. Regarded as the foremost cause of LC, evidence from studies have indicated that tobacco smoking causes LC. Additionally, exposure to outdoor air pollution and/or occupational-related exposures increase LC risk. Further, frequent consumption of red meat, processed meat increases adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Inverse associations between the disease risk and BMI ≥25 kg/m2 , higher level of physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption with a high frequency were reported. Future studies are warranted to validate the association between histologic subtypes of LC and lifestyle patterns.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License.


DOI: 10.18276/cej.2016.2–05


Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine (CEJSSM) is an open access scientific quarterly journal (CC-BY-SA license)

Citation/Publisher Attribution

Kruk, J., Aboul-Enein, B.H. (2016). The Associations of Selected Lifestyle Patterns and Lung Cancer Risk: An Evidence-based Update. Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine, 14 (2), 37–53. DOI: 10.18276/cej.2016.2–05.