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Academic Probation and Self-Efficacy: Investigating the Relationship between Academic Probation Types and Academic Self-Efficacy Measures
College tuition costs have risen 33% in the past ten years (NCES, 2016a), forcing college administrators to refocus their efforts on student retention in order to stay competitive (Alarcon & Edwards, 2012; Sanders, Daly, & Fitzgerald, 2016; Tinto, 2006). Although universities have implemented support programs to help students in these areas, students are still failing. Students with low self-efficacy lack motivation and lack self-regulation skills, putting them at a higher risk of discontinuing. Self-efficacy not only impacts academic performance (Bandura, 1982, 1997; Budescu & Silverman, 2016, Gallagher, Marques, & Lopez, 2016), but it also influences how students handle challenges (Al-Harthy & Was, 2013; Han, Farruggia, & Moss, 2017), impacts their level of self-discipline (Komarraju & Nadler, 2013), and their self-regulation strategies (Chemers, Hu, & Garcia, 2001). This quantitative study investigated student perceptions of academic self-efficacy after having experienced academic challenges, defined by academic probation, suspension, or dismissal, during their first year. The relationship between academic probation types was studied in comparison with academic variables: cumulative GPA, academic cohort, and type of academic challenge. The sample included undergraduate students from a mid-size, private institution in New England. Participants (N = 724) were emailed a link to a questionnaire consisting of self-rated statements created by the researcher and derived from the General Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995). Respondent data (N = 59) was exported to Excel and then SPSS® for analysis. Descriptive statistics, Cronbach’s Alpha, a t-test, and one-way ANOVA were conducted. Results showed that students who were once academically at-risk demonstrated higher self-efficacy in managing difficult problems, learning new material, feeling motivated to succeed in courses, and havingconfidence in their academic abilities. These students also demonstrated lower academic self-efficacy in their ability to understand difficult course material and choosing to complete optional assignments even if it did not guarantee them a good grade. There was no significant relationship between cohort and academic self-efficacy score. Although not statistically significant, results showed a trend indicating that the higher the cumulative GPA, the higher the academic self-efficacy score. These findings may help administrators better understand student academic self-efficacy and tailor support services to help this population.
Mosier, Sarah B, "Academic Probation and Self-Efficacy: Investigating the Relationship between Academic Probation Types and Academic Self-Efficacy Measures" (2018). Dissertation & Theses Collection. AAI10814180.