Error Management at Different Organizational Levels – Frontline, Manager, and Company

Document Type



The influence of service recovery efforts in the form of apology (error management) at three organizational levels – frontline, manager, and company – on consumer satisfaction and behavioral intentions was examined with a 2 × 2 × 2 experimental study. Results support the main effects of all three apology levels on consumer satisfaction with the service exchange (recovery) process. The results also indicate that frontline apology has greater influence on consumers’ satisfaction when a manager's apology is also present. Moreover, the study identifies perceived control and fairness as mediators of the relationships between apology levels and consumer satisfaction indicating potential theoretical and managerial implications.



Citation/Publisher Attribution

Guchait, P., Kim, M. G., & Namasivayam, K. (2011). Error management at different organizational levels – frontline, supervisor, and company, International Journal of Hospitality Management 31, 12-22.